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Flow in Porous Rocks by Andrew W. Woods download in pdf, ePub, iPad

Petroleum and natural gas are extractedThere is always a

There is always a question about which retention time to use in the calculations. Petroleum and natural gas are extracted from the subsurface by inducing these fluids to flow to production wells.

Maybe not so fast, but everyone has seen water soak into beach sand and garden soils. One of the questions that may be raised against the method is the possibility for obtaining equilibrium between the phases. Other isotherms also may be considered but are less likely to be needed.

In most cases, this ion exchange can be described by a Langmuir isotherm Eq. This can be split into connected and unconnected porosity. The most efficient would be to include one tracer that has no partitioning to the liquid phase. The heterogeneous porous medium is replaced by a homogeneous one with an average permeability k, chosen so that the average amount of fluid flow is the same. At low concentration, which is the case when tracers are considered, this equation will be a straight line with slope U.

Many more types of connecting pores can be considered, but these are most representative for describing the extreme differences between their types. This problem will be less important at higher temperatures at which the microbial activity is lower. Also, there tends to be a proportionality between pore throat radii and pore volume. The calculations are based on a real equilibrium between the phases, which depends on saturation, diffusion rates, flow rates, pore structure, and partition coefficient. Well sorted grains of approximately all one size materials have higher porosity than similarly sized poorly sorted materials where smaller particles fill the gaps between larger particles.