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The core sugars are added

Great variation occurs in the composition of the sugars in the O side chain between species and even strains of Gram-negative bacteria. Smooth antigens probably allow resistance to phagocytes, since rough mutants are more readily engulfed and destroyed by phagocytes. The outer membrane is impermeable to large molecules and hydrophobic compounds from the environment. Lipid A Lipid A is, in normal circumstances, a phosphorylated glucosamine disaccharide decorated with multiple fatty acids. Submit Tips For Editing We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles.

The result is inflammation

Being of crucial importance to Gram-negative bacteria, these molecules make candidate targets for new antimicrobial agents. The net effect is to induce inflammation, intravascular coagulation, hemorrhage and shock. Activation of the coagulation cascade. Such bacteria are virulent because of this resistance to immune forces of the host. The composition of the O chain varies from strain to strain.

The result is inflammation. The core sugars are added sequentially to Lipid A by successive additions, and the O side chain is added last, one preassembled subunit at a time. Chemical Nature of Endotoxin Most of the work on the chemical structure of endotoxin has been done with species of Salmonella and E. Somatic O antigen or O polysaccharide is attached to the core polysaccharide. This area contains a large number of charged groups and is thought to be important in maintaining the permeability properties of the outer membrane.

The hydrophilic O polysaccharides could act as water-solubilizing carriers for toxic Lipid A. At the bottom of the article, feel free to list any sources that support your changes, so that we can fully understand their context. Activation of the complement cascade.